Physics 17: 7-11 Electric Capacitance
Text Reading: Giancoli, Physics - Principles with Applications, Chapter 17: Sections 17 to 11
- 17.7: Excess charge can be stored and held, creating a capacitor whose capacitance depends on the potential difference or voltage across the charged plates: C = Q/V, with C in units called farads. The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor depends on the area of the plates and distance apart: C = &epsilon0 A/d.
- 17.8: A dialectric is the medium between between the plates of a capacitor. It changes the capacitance by a factor K, which is 1 for a vacuum and greater than 1 for all other materials.
- 17.9: Stored energy U depends on the charge and can be expressed in different ways: ½ QV = ½CV2 = ½Q2/C = ½ (ε0A/d) (E2d2) = ½(ε0E2Ad)
- 17.10 Signal voltages carry information by varying voltage accoding to specific rules that can be interpreted by the receiving device. Real voltage varies continuously, but modern computer data is stored in digital format, so devices must use analog-to-digital converters to send signals, and digital-to-analog converters for analog-dependent devices like music speakers and CRT displays. Conversion to digital data allows the sending device to compress data, making it possible to transmit large amounts of information in shorter periods of time.
- 17.11: CRTs and oscilloscopes use beams of charged particles that interact with target screens. The patterns formed on the target can be controlled by changing the electrical field through which the particles travel.
- 17.12: Because nerves operate by passing electrical charges, we can detect and monitor changes in electric potential of cells and tissues, and effectively "map" healthy and unhealthy patterns of change. Electrocardiogram records to changes in electrical potential in a person's heart.
- Charge on capacitor:
- Charge on dielectric with permittivity Kε0:
- Electrical energy on capacitor:
- Energy density
Read the following weblecture before chat: Electric Fields and Capacitance: Storing Charge
Use the simulation below to construct capacitors with different battery voltages and distances.
- How does doubling the voltage change capacitance?
- How does changing the direction of the current (using negative voltage) change capacitance?
- How does doubling the separation of the plate change the field between them?
- How does doubling the area of the plate change the field? How does it change the capacitance?
Physics simulation Java Applets are the product of the PHET Interactive Simulations project at the University of Colorado, Boulder.
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