Physics 28: 7-12 Electron Structure and the Periodic Table
Text Reading: Giancoli, Physics - Principles with Applications, Chapter 28: 7-12.
- 28: 7 In atoms with more than one electron (anything other than neutral hydrogen), no two electrons have have the same quantum state. At most, two electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same suborbital determined by n, l, and ms values.
- 28: 8 Electron orbital structure determines the ability of an atom of a particular element to form chemical bonds with other atoms. All atoms with a particular set of outer shell electrons (valence electrons) will form bonds the same way. This allows us to organize elements by electron configurations in columns with like configurations, creating the periodic table.
- 28: 9 Examination of X-ray spectra allows us to determine inner energy levels for atoms with high numbers of electrons, where outer-shell electron attraction to the nucleus is lessened due to partial shielding of the attractive force by the inner shells of electrons. Free electron deceleration causes photon emission equal to the loss of kinetic energy (bremsstrahlung effect).
- 28: 10 Absorption of UV photons and emission of that energy by multiple longer-wavelength jumps creates fluorescence, a phenomenon which occurs in both living organisms (bioluminescence) and inorganic material (fluorescent lights).
- 28: 11 Lasers employ stimulation of excited electrons to make specific emission jumps, creating light of a specific wavelength at discrete intervals, so that photon emissions are synchronized. This creates a coherent beam of light which tightly focuss energy for surgery, "welding", and transferring data to small areas (CD and DVD informatio storage).
- 28: 12 Recording reflected light in different phases allows us to capture and display three-dimensional representation of objects (holograms).
||λ0: Cutoff wavelength
h: Planck constant
eV = ΔKE = hf0
Read the following weblecture before chat: Electron Configurations of the Elements
Read about how to describe the electrons and their orbitals for elements at the Periodic Table interactive site.
Then click on "Play Now" and build the four elements suggested with the correct ground level electron configurations. How does the Pauli exclusion principle affect your choice of orbitals to use?
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