Biology Homework Chapter 4: Cell Structure, Size, and Organelles
Textbook assignment: Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell, sections 1-12.
- 4.1 Be able to identify the four types of microscopes described and the special advantages — and limitations — of each, including the scale of the objects it will best displace. What is the difference between magnification and resolving power? In this text, at least, be sure that you can tell the type of picture (which kind of microscope was used), and the magnification.
- 4.2 What is the range of cell size? Are some large enough to see with the naked eye? What does surface-to-volume ratio mean? Why does it limit the ultimate size of a cell?
- 4.3-4.4 The two major kinds of cells are prokaryotic cells (bacteria and archaea) and eukaryotic cells (everything else). These sections introduce the differences between the two: prokaryotic cells are very simple with few internal structures. Eukaryotic cells are the basis of multicellular life forms such as plants and animals. The two types of cells have similar structures—they both have nuclei, mitochondria, microtubules, microfilaments, Golgi apparatus, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. There are differences; note which organelles are missing from each type.
- 4.5-12 The rest of the chapter looks at each organelle or structural component of the eukaryotic cell and discusses its characteristics and functions. Most structures are presented with both a picture or diagram, and a photo from one or another of the microscopes discussed in 4.1. Practice mapping from the photograph to the diagram so that you understand how the diagram was developed. Many of the organelles have large membrane surfaces which act as filters or sites for chemical reactions.
- 4.5 — The Nucleus The nucleus contains chromatin, the normal form of expressible DNA, which changes form when cell replication occurs. What happens in the nucleolus? How do materials cross the membrane boundary between the nucleus and the rest of the cell? What materials cross this boundary?
- 4.6 — Ribosomes What is the purpose and function of the ribosomes? Where are they found? Are there many or few in each cell?
- 4.7 — Endomembrane System Components What cell components or organelles are part of the endomembrane system? What characterizes these components and makes them different from other cell components?
- 4.8 — Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) What is the purpose and function of the ER? What is the difference between smooth and rough ER? Is there only one or many?
- 4.9 — Golgi Apparatus What is the purpose and function of the Golgi apparatus? Where are they found? Are there many or few in each cell?
- 4.10 — Lysosomes What is the purpose and function of the lysosomes? Where are they found? Are there many or few in each cell?
- 4.11 — Vacuoles What is the purpose and function of the vacuoles? Where are they found? Are there many or few in each cell? What are the differences between vacuoles in plant cells and those animal cells?
- 4.12 Review How are the different structures of the cell connected?
Read the following weblecture before chat: Cell Structure
Take notes on any questions you have, and be prepared to discuss the lecture in chat.
Open the NCI Virtual Microscope Lab to learn how a microscope works.
- Click on Guide and through the materials. It will explain how the lab works.
- Click on Learn and then on each circled question mark to learn about the parts of a binocular light microscope and how each part functions.
- Use the Explore option to pull at least five different slides, one from each group. Use the focus and light adjustments to focus your image and look at each slide at different magnifications. What happens if you have too much light? Too little light?
- What characteristics do the living tissues you observe have in common? How are they different?
Chat Preparation Activities
- Essay question: The Moodle forum for the session will assign a specific study question for you to prepare for chat. You need to read this question and post your answer before chat starts for this session.
- Mastery Exercise: The Moodle Mastery exercise for the chapter will contain sections related to our chat topic. Try to complete these before the chat starts, so that you can ask questions.
- No quiz yet: the Chapter Quiz opens when we finish the chapter.
Read through the lab for this week; bring questions to chat on any aspect of the lab, whether you intend not perform it or not. If you decide to perform the lab, be sure to submit your report by the posted due date.
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