Biology Homework Chapter 12: Gene Technologies: Cloning and GMOs
Textbook assignment: Chapter 12: DNA Technology and Genomics, sections 1-10.
- 12.1: Plasmids are rings of DNA material that can be transferred into bacteria. Plasmids that carry F-factor DNA enable the receiving bacterium to generate the transfer tubes (sex pili) and "mate" with other bacteria. Other types of plasmids can carry DNA sequences that are beneficial or detrimental to the cells receiving them.
- 12.2: Restriction enzymes are special proteins that recognize a particular DNA sequence and cut the DNA at that point. Sections of isolated DNA can them be inserted into plasmids and transferred to bacteria. As the bacteria reproduce, the plasmids and the DNA they carry are reproduced, and the bacteria express the DNA, making the proteins encoded in the transferred DNA sequence. When an entire chromosome or gene is divided by a particular enzyme and cloned this way, the resulting bacterial colonies constitute a "library" of copies of the DNA.
- 12.3: Radioactive "marker" strands of specific DNA sequences are combined with random DNA strands. The marker strands will attach to complementary DNA sequences on the random strands, and their radioactivity can be used to identify and isolate the random strands.
- 12.4: Reverse transcriptase is an enzyme that makes DNA from RNA. Since the RNA doesn't carry entrons, the DNA it produces is shorter, but has all the essential information of the original DNA.
- 12.5: CRISP-R technology can identify a specific gene for editing, using simple techniques and equipment. This has both great potential for "fixing" defective genes through an entire organism.
- 12.6: Recombinant DNA can be inserted into bacteria and yeasts in many cases, but certain proteins useful for treatment of human diseases can only be made by mammalian cells.
- 12.7: DNA technology allows pharmaceutical companies to manufacture therapeutic hormones such as insulin and human growth hormone, to identify defective alleles and infections, and to create vaccines by producing molecules that trigger and train humane immune systems to build defenses against the disease.
- 12.8: Genetically modified (GM) organisms (both plants and animals) have genes they were not born with, either from their own or other species. Transgenic (cross species) animals can be programmed to resist diseases, or produce more milk or wool.
- 12.9: GM organisms raise a number of risks, including transferring allergens to currently "safe" foods, or superior survival traits to wild species (bacteria and plants in particular) which would then be more difficult to control.
- 12.10 Gene therapy is the alteration of an afflicted individual's genes. Normal genes are inserted into a virus, which is then used to infect blood marrow cells from the individual. The blood marrow reproduces healthy cells, which can be introduced into the individual to treat diseases that affect the immune system. Gene therapy raises significant moral issues.
Read the following weblecture before chat: DNA Technology
Take notes on any questions you have, and be prepared to discuss the lecture in chat.
Perform the study activity below:
- No quiz yet: the Chapter Quiz opens when we finish the chapter.
Read through the lab for this week; bring questions to chat on any aspect of the lab, whether you intend not perform it or not. If you decide to perform the lab, be sure to submit your report by the posted due date.
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