Biology Homework Chapter 27: The Reproductive System
Textbook assignment: Chapter 27: Reproduction and Embryonic Development, sections 1-8.
- 27.1: Asexual reproduction results in a clone of the parent individual, with no change in genetic makeup, through budding, fission, fragmentation, or regeneration of an organism from some part of the parent.
- 27.2: Sexual reproduction requires the fusion of two gametes (usually designated male and female) through fertilization (which can be external or internal), each contributing half the genetic makeup of the offspring, which is therefore unique to the new individual.
- 27.3: The reproductive system of the human female consists of organs that produce and distribute an ovum, allow for its fertilization, and support the zygote through fetal development. Ova develop in follicles in the ovaries, and when released, procede down the oviduct to the uterus, where they become planted if fertilized. If not, the ovum passes through the vagina and out of the body.
- 27.4: The male reproductive system consists of organs that produce and distribute sperm. Sperm produced in the testes and held in the scrotum at a constant temperature pass then through the epididymus (where they continue development), then on through a series of ducts (the vas deferens and ejaculatory duct).
- 27.5 Both sperm and ova are produced by meiosis. All 4 sperm produced by meiosis from a parent cell are equal, but the development of meiosis for the ova favors one of the four cells produced, giving it most of the available material to ensure better survival. The other three cells become polar bodies that disintegrate.
- 27.6: Hormones estrogen, progesterone control the endometrial lining of the uterus as well as the amounts of LSH, and FH that govern the menstrual cycle. Most human feedback systems are negative feedback: as the process continues, what is produced turns the process off. An exception is human sexual response, where the release of hormones increases the response for some time.
- 27.7: STDs are sexually transmissible diseases; they include viral infections (which usually cannot be cured completely although symptoms are sometimes controllable), as well as bacterial, protozoan, and fungal infections (which usually can be cured). HIV, genital herpes, gonorrhea, and syphilis are examples of STDs. No form of birth control can totally eliminate exposure to STD factors.
- 27.8: Contraception methods fall into several categories. Rhythm methods require that women watch their cycles and engage in intercourse only when the ovum is not present. Sterilization prevents the production of ova or sperm. Oral contraceptives prevent the release of ova by overriding normal hormonal amounts with synthetic doses of estrogen and progesterone. Barriers such as condoms or diaphragms may prevent fertilization, although neither is 100% effective and must be used with spermicides to be even 90% effective. None of these methods, strictly speaking, involves destruction of a zygote (fertilized ova). The remaining methods (such as the morning after pill), and the no-longer-used copper coils, prevent implantation of a fertilized zygote and as such are abortive methods.
Please note: We cover STDs and birth control topics in class for two reasons. One is that these terms appear in the media constantly, and it helps if you know what they mean and can provide useful and accurate information, especially as you witness to responsible Christian sexual behavior and respect for all human life, including that of the developing fetus. The second is that many states and school districts require a course in STDs, AIDs, and birth control, even of homeschoolers. If your district does have such a requirement, please let me know, and I will furnish you with a letter describing the content of this course and our belief that our discussions here meet such requirements.
If you have questions on any part of the material and do not wish to ask them aloud in class, please email ahead of time or message me in class, and I will try to cover that topic.
Read the following weblecture before chat: Methods of Reproduction
Take notes on any questions you have, and be prepared to discuss the lecture in chat.
Perform the study activity below:
Use the slides at the LUMEN website. Histology is the study of tissues, and slides are microscope slides of specific tissues. Not all the slides may be accessible; look at the ones you can.
Chat Preparation Activities
- Essay question: The Moodle forum for the session will assign a specific study question for you to prepare for chat. You need to read this question and post your answer before chat starts for this session.
- Mastery Exercise: The Moodle Mastery exercise for the chapter will contain sections related to our chat topic. Try to complete these before the chat starts, so that you can ask questions.
- No quiz yet: the Chapter Quiz opens when we finish the chapter.
Read through the lab for this week; bring questions to chat on any aspect of the lab, whether you intend not perform it or not. If you decide to perform the lab, be sure to submit your report by the posted due date.
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