Biology Homework Chapter 28: The Brain
Textbook assignment: Chapter 28: The Nervous System, sections 10 - 20.
- 28.11 Neurons function in similar ways regardless of the species in which they are found, but nervous systems vary in complexity and organization, from simple neural nets in hydro to the CNS/PNS systems with complex brains in mammals. [Note that the complexity of the nervous system is one of the characteristics used to determine evolutionary status as "early" or "late"].
- 28.12 In vertebrates, the large brain is located in the head, and the primary connector is the spine, which develops out of the notochord. The brain and spine together form the central nervous system where most information integration is done.
- 28.13 The remaining nerves form the peripheral system (PNS), connecting sensors and effectors to the CNS. The motor system allows the brain to control muscles (often consciously) in response to stimuli, while the autonomic nervous system allows the brain to monitor and adjust automatic muscle function, such as heartbeat and breathing.
- 28.14 Brain structures are divided into forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain areas for comparison. The functions that are carried out by each structure vary from species to species. In mammals, the cerebrum in the forebrain, used for analysis of signals and memory, becomes the larges part of the brain.
- 28.15 It would be more accurate to say that computers mimic the brain! The different parts of the human brain are the
- Medula oblongata: breathing, swallowing
- Pons: Breathing
- Midbrain: hearing, visual signals; transfer point
- Cerebellum: body movement, motor memory
- Thalamus: Sensory data receptor, motor response
- Hypothalamus: homeostatic control
- Cerebrum: Data integration, memory, learning, speech
- 28.16 The cerebral cortex , part of the cerebrum, has four lobes. The frontal lobe controls association, the parietal lob speech and verbal identification, the temporal lob hearing and smell, and the occipital lobe vision.
- 28.17 Most of what we know about brain function comes from studying people whose brain function has been inhibited by accident or illness.
- 28.18 Brains produce electrical signals that can be detected with MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and can help us map the area that responds to particular stimuli.
- 28.19 During sleep, electrical signals reflect the activities of different types of dreaming.
- 28.20 The limbic system is a connected area that controls emotional response (the amygdala), learning (long and short term memory -- the hypocampus), and smell (the olfactory bulb).
- 28.21 Alteration of the ability of neurons to send specific transmitters causes schizophrenia, depression, and memory loss such as that found in Alzheimer's Disease and CTE (Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy).
Read the following weblecture before chat: The Human Brain.
Take notes on any questions you have, and be prepared to discuss the lecture in chat.
Perform the study activity below:
Use the Neural Control of Walking and Running click-and-learn to explore the brain controls muscle activity.
- Click on the "Start Click and Learn" link. This activity has 16 slides, some of which have short animations.
- How can movement data be collected for analysis? What kinds of information are monitored?
- What is a gait?
- What is "alternation of movement"? What is "co-activation"?
- How do spinal interneuron circuits control movement on different sides of the body?
- What happens if gene expression is suppressed so that excitatory interneurons can send signals across the body midline?
- What are some of the practical applications of modifying or imitating interneuron circuits?
Chat Preparation Activities
- Essay question: The Moodle forum for the session will assign a specific study question for you to prepare for chat. You need to read this question and post your answer before chat starts for this session.
- Mastery Exercise: The Moodle Mastery exercise for the chapter will contain sections related to our chat topic. Try to complete these before the chat starts, so that you can ask questions.
- Required: Complete the Mastery Exercise with a score of 85% or better.
- Optional: Test yourself with the textbook multiple choice questions and note any that you miss that still don't make sense. Bring questions to chat!
- Go to the Moodle and take the quiz for this chapter.
Read through the lab for this week; bring questions to chat on any aspect of the lab, whether you intend not perform it or not. If you decide to perform the lab, be sure to submit your report by the posted due date.
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